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タイトル: An Introduction to the Serpentinite Biosphere in the Mariana Forearc : Capsule of the Deep Subsurface Biosphere from the Chamorro Seamount
その他のタイトル: マリアナ前弧の蛇紋岩生物圏への招待 : チャモロ海山からの地下生物圏のカプセル
著者: Fujioka, Kantaro
Yamanaka, Toshiro
Gamo, Toshitaka
Inagaki, Fumio
Miwa, Tetsuya
Sato, Hiroshi
著者(別言語): 藤岡, 換太郎
山中, 寿郎
蒲生, 俊敬
稲垣, 史夫
三輪, 哲也
佐藤, 暢
キーワード: Serpentinite
serpentinite seamount
subsurface biosphere
serpentinite biosphere
extremophile life
mantle peridotite
発行日: 2002年2月12日
出版者: 東京大学地震研究所
掲載誌情報: 東京大学地震研究所彙報. 第76冊第3号, 2002.2.12, pp. 417-424
抄録: n this paper we propose the possible existence of a new biosphere called the "serpentinite biosphere." We also suggest that serpentinites act as a receptacle of the deep biosphere. Analyses of geology, geophysics, biology, and chemistry of these "serpentinite capsules" are useful for determining the deepest limits of the subsurface biosphere. We obtained bathymetry, sediments, geochemical, and microbiological data from the Chamorro Seamount, a serpentinite seamount consisting of a pile of serpentinite flows in the Mariana forearc. These data reveal that serpentinite flows are products of upper mantle peridotite altered by the addition of water from the subducting slab. Alteration of peridotite to serpentinite provides hydrogen gas and methane, which are the most important energy sources for extremophile life. It also induces a buoyant rise of serpentinite diapirs, which are likely to capture and transport portions of the deep biosphere during their ascent to the surface. The conditions and the characteristics of serpentinite seamounts indicate that the serpentinite diapir is a transported capsule, or a "postcard" from the deep subsurface biosphere, as if meteorites are packages from space and snow is a letter from heaven. We should read them carefully to obtain a broader understanding of the subsurface biosphere.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/13233
ISSN: 00408972


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