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|その他のタイトル: ||A Study on the Political System of the Tuluva Dynasty of Vijayanargara|
|著者: ||太田, 信宏|
|著者(別言語): ||Ota, Nobuhiro|
|掲載誌情報: ||東洋文化研究所紀要. 142冊, 2003-03, p. 240-200|
|抄録: ||This paper attempts to examine the political system of the third (Tuluva) dynasty of Vijayanagara during the first half of the sixteenth century with special emphasis on its foundation, the Nāyaka system, mainly based on the contemporary inscriptions and the travel books of two Portuguese merchants who visited the royal capital, Vijayanagara.
In the Nāyaka system, kings assigned nāyakas few tracts (sīmes) as their fiefs (nāyakatanas) on the condition of military service and tribute.
Kings had strong political control over nāyakas who were obliged to stay in the royal capital and daily attend the royal court and whose fiefs were transferred from one place to another in a rather short period of time.
Nāyakas did not have their own power bases in the specific province, as has been generally understood.
The Nāyaka system functioned systematically as “the so-called actual mechanisms of state power” throughout the period of the Tuluva dynasty.
Thus the Vijayanagara kingdom of the Tuluva dynasty can never be defined as a “segmentary state” which, in principle, denies kings any political control over their segments (nāyakas).
On the other hand, the state-wide administrative and military organization under the direct control of kings was in an immature state.
The royal demesne seemed to be small as compared with the total of all nāyakas' fiefs.
The strength of the kingdom depended largely on the personal ability and resource of nāyakas, who were assigned the major role both in the provincial governance and the military mobilization.
As shown by the frequent occurrence of the internal conflict involving powerful nāyakas, kings could not take for granted the loyalty and submission of nāyakas.
A factor which encouraged nāyakas to behave autonomously and independently vis-à-vis kings was the possibility of political career the former could expect in other states such as Deccan Muslim kingdoms which were in intermittent conflict with the Vijayanagara kingdom and in need of men with ability and mobile resources like nāyakas.
Under the Tuluva dynasty we see the sophistication and intensification of royal performances which show off the personal dignity and prowess of kings.
They might serve to compensate for the weakness and vulnerability of kings inherent in the political system.|