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タイトル: 「崇明県志」に見える「承価」「過投」「頂首」について : 田面田底慣行形成過程の一研究
その他のタイトル: The chengjia (承価), guotou (過投) and dingshou (頂首) custom in the Chongming gazetteers (崇明県志) : a case study on the development of the dual property system in the Jiangnan region
著者: 寺田, 浩明
著者(別言語): Terada, Hiroaki
キーワード: 中国
発行日: 1985年10月
出版者: 東京大学東洋文化研究所
掲載誌情報: 東洋文化研究所紀要. 98冊, 1985-10, p. 39-178
抄録: Chongming district is located in the middle of the Yangtze river and is famous among social and legal historians for its reclamation system called the maijia-chengjia (買価承価).According to the Qianlong edition of the gazetteer, the tenant who reclamims land is bestowed with chengjia rights by the landowner who holds maijia rights, and chengjia is also transferable by the tenant.Ther-efore this system has been counted as an example of the dual property system during the Ch'ing period.But recently Kusano Yasushi (草野靖) has asserted that this system was already in existance in the Yuan dynasty but was replaced by the guotou system by the beginning of Ch'ing dynasty, and thereafter the tenant did not reclaim land but only had a rent deposit (押租) relation with the landowner.This paper examines this new theory and tries to resolve some theoretical problems of the formation of the dual property system through an intensive investigation of the four editions of the Chongming gazetteers.The first two sections discuss the nature and meaning of Chengjia and guotou in the gazetteers.It is elucidated that maijia-chengjia system is not in itself a dual property system, rather chengjia means the right of rent discount, and guotou is the price of the cultivation right under the rent collec-ting system called yizufa (議租法).These two customs existed simultaneously at the beginning of the Ch'ing, and never replaced each other.In the next three sections, the history of chengjia, guotou and dingshou custom are discussed.The third section examines the legal conditions of the tenant who hold chengjia and guotou in the first half of Ch'ing period through the review of Kangxi and Qianlong gazetteers.It is elucidated that chengjia and guotou custom developed simultaneously and the dual property system was first established in this period.In the forth section, the land customs in the Chongming district before Ch'ing period and the formation of maijia-chengjia system are discussed briefly.The fifth section discusses the conditions of the tenant after the collapse of the maijia-chengjia system, which began during the Qianlong period according to Guangxu and Mingguo gazetteers.It is argued that the dingshou custom was introduced as the rent deposit system at this time, and the guotou custom also developed in this period.These two customs formed the core of the dual property system in the Republican period.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/2163
ISSN: 05638089


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