UTokyo Repository >
132 東洋文化研究所 >
|タイトル: ||15・6世紀を中心とする江南地方劇の変質について (1)|
|その他のタイトル: ||A Study on Structural Changes of Chinese Local Plays in Chiang-nan 江南 through about the 15th and 16th Centuries (1)|
|著者: ||田仲, 一成|
|著者(別言語): ||Tanaka, Issei|
|掲載誌情報: ||東洋文化研究所紀要. 60冊, 1973-03, p. 113-175|
|抄録: ||Early from the 13th century, there scattered village-communities called shê 社, all over the Chiang-nan 江南 district.
Every shê was ordinarily organized around the temple of village-diety called shê-miao 社廟, where various sorts of local plays were offered in many festival days.
These customs of performing plays had not only been maintained in every shê during the war time of the 14th century, but also further developed both in quality and in quantity in the course of the 15th century.
In the lst chaper of this paper, I have observed various types of plays popularized within each shê in these times, according to the materials found in local administrative documents or kinship books.
The important aspects of the matters may be condensed into the following points.
(1) In every shê-miao festival, the plays constituted the important part of the agricultural rites offered to the village-diety.
These types of shê-miao plays, in general, included the following several kinds.
a) The play of spring prayer for a good harvest of the year.
b) The play of autumnal prayer of gratitude for autumn or winter harvest.
c) The play of summer prayer for preventing floods or drought.
Some of these kinds, especially the 3rd one (c), were often held by union of several village communities more than two or three, as the baisis of local agricultural reprodution-system in these times more or less expanded beyond a territory of a sigle shê.
(2) Apart from the custom of staging plays as part of agricultural rites, the shê-miao also served as the village conference center often called hsiang-yüeh-suo 郷約所, where villagers assembled once every few years to discuss and conclude their community regulations, the so-called hsiang-yüeh 郷約, for securing the baisis of agricultural reproduction in the village.
They included prohibition of randam felling of trees, doing damages to crops by letting cows and shêep trample on the farmland.
The regulations concerned the hills, forests, water resources, etc., jointly owned by the villagers.
At such village assemblies, which were accompanied by banquets, plays were often performed as a means to take a solemn oath before the dieties of the shê-miao.
It was also customary to have a violator of the regulations finance the plays and at the same time have him renew his oath to the dieties.
In the Chiang-nan district, these types of village plays had remarkably developed in the course of the 16th century.
(3) The shê, the above village community, had also been expected to serve as a famine-relief system in the local society.
So, in ordinary years, every shê used to collect much foods, as a sort of additional tax besides ordinary one, from all the villagers including the poorer class, so as to create and maintain its own famine-relief fund enough to supply the necesary foods to famine striken people in lean years.
But almost all the villagers, especially poorer peasants, were discontented with these additional charges falling upon them, so the managers of the famine-relief system were often compelled, supposedly, to appease their complaint, in performing plays at the cost of the famine-relief fund.
In the following chapters, I shall procced to study how the social structure in the shê-miao plays as above-mentioned should have changed or collapsed in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries.|