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|タイトル: ||東南アジア基層社會の一形態 : フィリピンのバランガイ社會について|
|その他のタイトル: ||A Contribution to Southeast Asian Infrastructure, Analysis of Pre-Spanish Philippine Society|
|著者: ||池端, 雪浦|
|著者(別言語): ||Ikehata, Setsuho|
|掲載誌情報: ||東洋文化研究所紀要. 54冊, 1971-03, p. 83-163|
|抄録: ||Except for some southern islands where Islam had permeated since the 15th century, the greater part of the Philippine islands had scarecely been affected by foreign cultures before Spaniards came to conquer the islands late in the 16th century.
Therefore you may suppose that the indigenous culture to Southeast Asia, if there was, would be maintained in this area longest.
In this paper the present writer analyzes the social organizations and institutions of Pre-Spanish Philippine society, especially Tagalog society, which will consequently present some data by which you may infere a Southeast Asian‘infrastructure’suggested by G. Coedès.
On the eve of the Spanish occupation the Filipinos were grouped into the small communities called barangay which was then the only form of political and social organization.
Although there usually existed several barangays in a village which Spaniards represented by pueblo or poblaçon in their language, the overlordohip reigning over the whole village, that is, a regional grouping of barangays, had not been established yet.
The following are the main conclusion on the composition and institutions of the barangay community which the present author has come to through the analyses from the chapter I to the chapter V of this paper.
1) Usually barangay consisted of from 30 to 100 families, which were all relatives of dato or the chieftains according to Fr. Juan de Plasencia.
However it was not a kinship group in a strict sence of the word.
Because the rule of descent of Philippine society is bilateral and barangay was not composed of a single bilateral descent group of dato.
2) The group fanctions of barangay were to abtain the exclusive possession of a certain space of earth for agricultural production and to protect the security of the members against outer enemies.
3) In the barangay complex there were four distinct classes, that is, dato or the chieftains, timagua or the freemen, namamahay and saguiguilir.
The last two were the dependent classes subject to dato and timagua, and the Spanish records usually call both of them slaves.
However, although saguiguilir were the real slaves who served their master in his house and on his cultivated iands, and could be sold, namamahay, having their own house and property, served their master with half of their cultivated lands on which they had the same usufract with timagua and could not be sold.
4) The main origins of these dependent people were those for loans, those for crimes and those by captivity.
5) Namamahay and saguiguilir could emancipate themselves by giving a set amount of gold to their master.
On this occasion a ceremony took place between the master and the dependent.
6) The dependent status was hereditary.
The children of a freeman and a dependent woman or of a dependent man and a free woman, were divided into two parts, the odd numbers and the even numbers, and the former succeeded the father's status and the latter the mother's.
If there should not be more than one child, he was half free and half dependent.
The same with the odd child, in case there were an add number of children.
The possession of the individuai children whose parents belonged to seperate masters was decided in the same way.
7) The land ownership vested ultimately in the communal barangay.
Howener, timagua and namamahay were able to dispose their cultivated lands at least within the barangay and their children could inherit these lands.
8) Strictly speaking there was no family property in this society.
Husband and wife had one's own property in a household.
All the legitimate children, whether male or female, inherited equally from each of their parents.
9) Marriage was commonly contracted between a man and a woman of the same class and they had a tendency to procure a spouse from their close relatives.
On contracting a marriage the groom had to pay bride-price to the bride's family.
10) The social order of barangay was kept by the custom laws.
The crimes and disputes which occured in the barangay were judged by dato in accordance with the custom laws.
The crimes and conflicts concerned with two barangays were heard and judged by one or more than one dato who was chosen by the rest in the village.
The cooperative relationship of the datos had been established to maintain the social order through the village.|