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タイトル: 日本同族構造の分析 : 社會人類學的考察
その他のタイトル: Analysis of Dozoku Structure in Rural Japan
著者: 中根, 千枝
著者(別言語): Nakane, Chie
キーワード: 同族構造
発行日: 1963年1月
出版者: 東京大学東洋文化研究所
掲載誌情報: 東洋文化研究所紀要. 28冊, 1963-01, p. 133-167
抄録: An exceedingly large number of works have been written on dozoku and its related subjects by Japanese scholars in various fields such as sociology, law, economics, history, ethnology and folklore.However most of them are concerned with ideological interpretations or typological classifications, while the analysis of the dozoku structure has been negrected.The present essay particularly concerned on this negrected subject by applying the method of social anthropology.A dozoku is a set of extended households distinguishable by genealogical relations to the common original household.The genealogical relation, however, should be always accompanied by the economic basis.For example, households A and B form a dozoku, because B was established by the economic arrangement of A: for instance, A portioned its land to B, and built a house of B.The kinship relation itself (such as, the household heads of A and B are father and son, or brothers) does not form a dozoku, unless it accompanied the economic arrangement.Though the members of a dozoku often includes a set of agnates, structurally the dozoku is not a patrilineal lineage, as one of the examples of the members of a dozoku is compared with that of a patrilineal lineage in Diagram II on p. 142.The internal organization of an effective dozoku is found on the basis of the status differentiation among the households of a dozoku, which are ranked according to the genealogical distance of each household to the main (oldest) household, thus forming a pyramidical hierarchy with the main household at its apex.The effectiveness of a dozoku as a local corporate group is maintained by the supeiror economic and social status of the main household against the branch households.The degree of effectiveness and of institutionalization of dozoku shows considerable variations according to an individual dozoku, as well as to a given period of an individual dozoku.These mostly depend on the character of the leadership and of the economic base of the main household, and also with the historical and economic situations of a village community.Unlike a lineage system, the dozoku organization does not cover the whole society: it tends to be found among the population of the upper and middle sector of a village community.And the development of a dozoku seems to be related to a particular historical and economic situation of a community: under a fairly closed and stable economic system, yet provides substantial resources which make possible to accumulate wealth for some members of the community, but restricts the members to have alternative economic means other than to depend on a given limited resources within the community.Though the dozoku institution does not cover the all population, dozoku found in any locality in Japan reveals the common structure.This fact has dictated me to deal with dozoku as one of the most significant institutions for the kinship study in Japan.In my view, the dozoku structure manifiests the crucial elements of the underlying native kinship ideology in Japanese society.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/2251
ISSN: 05638089


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