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タイトル: 能力の構造
その他のタイトル: Structure of Human Abilities
著者: 中垣, 啓
著者(別言語): Nakagaki, Akira
発行日: 1975年3月31日
出版者: 東京大学教育学部
掲載誌情報: 東京大学教育学部紀要. 14巻, 1975.3, p.209-219
抄録: The purpose of this study is to clarify the interrelation of various types of human abilities and o present the model of the structure of human abilities. First of all, the writer considered the model of human abilities, which had already been presented by an educationalist, S. Katsuta, and criticized it from four viewpoints The first is to identify the existence of ability with the social estimation of ability. The second is the ambiguity of criterion with regard to the classification of abilities. The third is that the model is structureless and different types f abilities are ranged on the same level. The fourth is that the model lacks the developmental viewpoint of ability. After this preparatory consideration, the writer set out to construct his own model of human abilities, paying attention to human nervous system, of which the hierarchical structure is formalized by an physiologist, T. Tokizane, The writer divided human behaviors into four levels, namely, innate behavior (level I ) , adaptive.behavior (level II) , learning behavior (level III) and value-oriented behavior (level IV), and, some types of ability are made to correspond with each level of behavior according to what kind of ability is required to constitute the behavior. Then, he schematized the structure of abilities in consideration of the interrelation ane interposition among four levels. This model, named Model A, is a phylogenetic model, because the structure of human nervous system reflects the biological evolution of mankind. On the other hand, the behavior which seems to display a certain ability has three aspects, namely, intellectual aspect, receptive aspect and practical aspect. Well, we now know the stages of intellectual development of the child which were found out by an psychologist, J. Piaget. These are the sensorimotor stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage. The writer made clear the receptive and practical aspect of ability corresponding with each stage of the intellectual aspect, and constructed another model (Model B) of human abilities from the ontogenetic point of view. Finally, he investigated the correlation between Model A and Model B, or the phylogenetic model and the ontogenetic model, and synthesizing these two models, he presented the model of the total structure of human abilities. From this model, we can understand what relation a certin ability has to the other abilities and get many other suggestions concerning adout human abilities.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/313
ISSN: 04957849


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