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タイトル: 五領ヶ台式土器の編年 : その細分および東北地方との関係を中心に
その他のタイトル: Chronological Study of the Goryogadai Types of Jomon Pottery
著者: 今村, 啓爾
著者(別言語): Imamura, Keiji
発行日: 1985年10月30日
出版者: 東京大学文学部考古学研究室
掲載誌情報: 東京大学文学部考古学研究室研究紀要. 第4号, 1985.10, pp. 93-157
抄録: The Goryogadai type of pottery was first discerned on material from a shell mound of this name in Kanagawa Prefecture by S. Yamanouchi in 1936. He placed the type at the beginning of the Middle Jomon period of the Kanto district. In 1968, the author excavated a new type of pottery from the Miyanohara shell mound, Yokohama City and proposed to call it Goryogadai I, renaming the former Goryogadai type Goryogadai II, since the pottery from Miyanohara had some resemblance to the Goryogadai material as well as older features. In the present paper, he further divides Goryogadai I into Ia and Ib, Goryogadai II into IIa, IIb and IIc, followed by a further phase composed of three local types (Table 1). He deals with western Kanto and eastern Kanto in separate chapters because of distinct local colours. In the .third chapter, he outlines the chronology of the Tohoku district which has close relations with the Kanto district in this phase. Most of the pages of this paper are spent on the description of the attributes' of pottery; vessel forms, decorative patterns, layout of patterns on the surface, explanation of their respective changes, and the distribution of each type. As we do not 'have enough stratigraphical data to establish such a detailed chronology, this study has to depend mainly . on typology. Particular attention was paid to the following points to avoid subjective interpretations into which typological studies are liable to fall. (1) Consecutive changes of subdivided types. (2) Sites which yielded much pottery belonging to only one subdivided type as evidence for temporal separation. (3) Sites which yielded some subdivided and consecutive types together as collaborative evidence for close temporal positions. (4) Coincidence of distributions of some types as evidence against the possibility of contemporaneousness of, local types. Although these considerations are not original for this study, but basic for chronological studies, abundant material produced by many salvage excavations in recent years, has enhanced the probability of this method of study. The new chronology makes it possible to trace exactly the transition of pottery from the Early period to the Middle period. Before subdivision, the Goryogadai type was only one of about 50 types or phases established in the chronology of the Kanto district. It is astonishing that even such a small fraction of Jomon pottery experienced typological changes in so many steps. We must also turn our attention to local colour. Though the situation is not simple, we can recognize two distinctive traditions in Central Japan ; Goryogadai in eastern Kanto and Odoriba in Nagano Prefecture, Central Highlands. There is another local Goryogadai tradition in western Kanto which is not completely consecutive on account of strong influ-ences from the Odoriba tradition. In the phases of Goryogadai Ia and Ib, the Goryogadai type and the Odoriba type coexisted in an extensive area from western Kanto to the Central Highlands. In the IIb phase, a hybrid type prevailed in this area. In the next IIc phase, however, the Goryogadai type extended its distribution from eastern Kanto to the Central Highlands. And in the next phase, the Oishi type which was strongly influenced by the Hiraide 3A type (descendant of the Odoriba type), invaded the Kanto district. Rapid chan-ges in the pottery of western Kanto appear to have been caused by alternative influences from neighbors on both sides. Criticism levelled against detailed chronological studies of Jomon pottery points out a disregard of human beings in favour of pottery, or that it is our only aim to complicate the chronological tables. Irrespective of this criticism, it is a historical fact that Jomon pottery underwent a great many changes. Abandonment of detailed chronological study only means giving up to recognize the realities of Jomon pottery. We think that pottery faithfully records the past; the chronological stages, local traditions and possibly traces of immigration or social organization. If we want to glean the activi-ties of the Jomon people from this record, exact temporal arrangement is indispensable, because we cannot read a book with its pages out of order.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/4381
ISSN: 02873850


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