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タイトル: 縄文時代の「大形住居」について(その1) : その定義と機能をめぐる若干の考察
その他のタイトル: Ogata-jukyo (Large-scale Houses) of the Jomon Period (I) : Their Definition and Function
著者: 小川, 望
著者(別言語): Ogawa, Nozomu
発行日: 1985年10月30日
出版者: 東京大学文学部考古学研究室
掲載誌情報: 東京大学文学部考古学研究室研究紀要. 第4号, 1985.10, pp. 189-214
抄録: One type of houses, in Japanese generally named Ogata-jukyo (large-scale house), is found in the Jomon Period of Japan. Their most significant characteristic is dimension, but that makes it difficult to discern their essential qualities, because the standard for distinction between Ogata-jukyo and standard dwellings rests on dimensions that change continuously. It is, therefore; impossible to define the standard by given objective measure-ments. If large-scale houses and standard dwellings are distinguished by scale only, the problem whether they should be considered an independent constituent of Jomon culture is obscured. If they are distinguished by dimension only, should they be understood as one single cultural element. There may be two typological forms of Ogata-jukyo, one a cluster of dwelling pits, the other an arrangement of post holes. Although both may be liable to more detailed classification, I confine myself to the former in this paper. There are numerous other problems such as lack of terminological unity. As a matter of definition, the issue of function must be clarified. (The appellation jukyo (dwelling) is not strictly applicable in many cases.) They have been considered to be 1) communal houses, 2) structures for cooperative work processes and storage, 3) meeting places, and 4) ritual structures. The second interpretation is most favoured. It was suggested by M. Watanabe and according to his explanation, they were structures for communal work, like processing of nuts and for storage in the snow country. However, the amount of labour needed to construct them compares badly with labour saved by cooperation. To clarify some of these issues, it is necessary to define the object. To this end I investigated the outlines of dwellings and the forms of fireplaces of the Choja-yashiki site in Iwate prefecture. As a result, at least eleven, of 352 dwelling pits of this site were considered to possess properties to define them as an independent element They are distinguished by their scale, more than 10 m length and more than 8 m width. I preliminarily considered this to be the norm, investigated Ogata-jukyo of other sites, and compared deviations in the outline of large-scale dwellings and the form of their fireplaces with standard dwellings. As regards outlines, standard dwellings are mostly rectangular from the earliest to the middle phase of the early Jomon period and later, circular and oval outlines increase gradu-ally. On the other hand, Ogata jukyo outlines are mostly rectangular or elongated from the earlier early to the middle phase of the middle Jomon period, later, circular outlines increase. As regards forms of fireplaces, many standard dwellings have no fireplaces till the later Jomon period, although most of Ogata-jukyo are provided with fireplaces from the outset. Moreover, some standard dwellings have fireplaces on the earthen floor up until the earlier middle Jomon period and Fukushiki-ro (fireplaces consisting of an arrangement of stones composed of two parts) from the middle phase of the middle Jomon period. On the other hand, Ogata-jukyo have a number of fireplaces on the earthen floor, arranged lineally till the middle phase of the middle Jomon period, and from the earlier middle to the later middle Jomon period, they have fireplaces with arrangements of stones or with buried pot-tery, and from .the later middle Jomon period, they have Fukushiki-ro. Comparisons of standard dwellings and Ogata jukyo with regard to outlines and forms of fireplaces, suggested that changes of Ogata jukyo occured later than changes of standard dwellings. According to these results, the conditions of remains, and the existence of flask-shaped pits, I presented a hypothesis for the function of Ogata jukyo, as place for communal dining. Specifically, a place for ritual feasts attended by members of a social group that were intended to maintain reciprocal interdependence through distribution or re-destribution of stored pro-visions. There are numerous problems posed by this. hypothesis and I intend to apply myself, to them especially their spatial distribution, in following papers.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/4383
ISSN: 02873850


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