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タイトル: 続縄文時代前半期の銛頭の研究
その他のタイトル: Harpoonheads in the First Half of the Epi-Jomon Period
著者: 高橋, 健
著者(別言語): Takahashi, Ken
発行日: 2001年3月5日
出版者: 東京大学考古学研究室
掲載誌情報: 東京大学考古学研究室研究紀要. 第16号, 2001.3, pp. 83-137
抄録: In the first half of the Epi-Jomon period, a great variety of harpoonheads were used in Hokkaido. They were often decorated and buried in graves. This article tries to establish their classification and chronological sequence and consider their genealogy. Harpoonheads are classified by the way they are hafted, and the resistance they generate in the body of the target. These two points have often been confused, but they should be treated separately. When classifying according to resistance, harpoonheads are usually classified into barbed harpoonheads and toggle harpoonheads. The criteria for this classification have been unclear, but in this article harpoonheads meeting the following criteria are classified as toggle harpoonheads: 1. The tension of the line and the resistance the harpoonhead meet in the target produce a moment of force which rotates the harpoonhead. 2. Spurs or barbs are located in the rear of the line hole or the line groove. Epi-Jomon harpoonheads are classified into five categories: No.1, male-barbed; No.2, female-closed socket-barbed; No.3, female-closed socket-toggle; No.4, female-open socket-toggle (line also used for lashing the shaft or the foreshaft); No.5, female-open socket-toggle (line not used for lashing the shaft or the foreshaft) (Table 1). This article examines harpoonheads found in 26 Epi-Jomon sites (Fig.6, Table 2). No.4 harpoonheads are the traditional form common in prehistoric Hokkaido. No.5 harpoonheads are rare and exceptional in the Epi-Jomon period. This article discusses mainly No.1-No.3 harpoonheads, which existed in large numbers in the Epi-Jomon period, particularly in the first half, but did not exist in the preceding Jomon period or the succeeding Satsumon period. A chronological sequence was established by using a great variety of No.3 specimens from southern Hokkaido, especially the sites around the Funka-wan Bay. They are classified into Group A (Fig.8) and Group B (Fig.9, 10) by the shapes of the cross sections of their bodies, and the latter are subdivided into four groups (B0---B3) by the shapes and positions of their line holes. Using the available stratifical data, three stages are provisionally established: Minami-Usu 6 site strata VI stage, Usumoshiri site shell midden stage, and Usumoshiri site grave No.4 stage (Fig.11). They correspond to Group A, Groups B0/B1, and Groups B2/B3. These stages belong to the second half of the Esan culture, which is almost equivalent to the first half of the Epi-Jomon period in southern Hokkaido. This writer agrees with the widely-held view that No.3 harpoonheads originated from the Tohoku region. No.1 harpoonheads (Fig.15-17) were already widespread in the beginning of the Epi-Jomon period and can be found at Usumoshiri site grave No.4 stage. They are generally considered to be of Tohoku origin but the possibility that they originated north of Hokkaido cannot be denied. No.2 harpoonheads are unique to the Esan culture. There are no harpoonheads resembling them in the neighboring region, and the genealogy of these harpoonheads has been much discussed. They are classified into Group A with sharp points (Fig.18-20, Fig.21-5----10, Fig.22-6---9) and Group B with spoon-like heads for putting on end blades (Fig.21-1----4, Fig.22-1---5, Fig.23). Group A appeared in Minami-Usu 6 site strata VI stage, while Group B appeared in Usumoshiri site grave No.4 stage. This article concludes that, with regard to No.2 harpoonheads, Group A evolved under the influence of No.1 harpoonheads (barbed) and No.3 harpoonheads (closed socket) during the Esan culture, to be later followed by Group B.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/4450
ISSN: 02873850
出現カテゴリ: 東京大学考古学研究室研究紀要


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