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タイトル: 戦後日本における教員の知能・能力観の考察 : 1950年代の教育運動の言説を中心に
その他のタイトル: Teachers'Images of Intelligence and Ability in Postwar Japan : Focusing on Discourses in the Movement of Japan Teachers'Union in 1950s
著者: 相澤, 真一
著者(別言語): Aizawa, Shinichi
発行日: 2004年3月10日
出版者: 東京大学大学院教育学研究科
掲載誌情報: 東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要. 43巻, 2004.3, pp. 77-87
抄録: This paper probes teachers'images of intelligence and ability in the 1950s, with its main focus on discourses that were related to intelligence tests in the movement of Japan Teachers'Union (JTU). The paper suggests that intelligence tests functioned as apparatus at schools in three aspects during that time. The first function was as an apparatus for distinguishing intelligence, while the second an apparatus for measuring the correlation of academic achievement with potential ability. Finally, the third function was as an apparatus for measuring hereditary or environmental influences on learning achievement. From the viewpoint of these three functions, it can be said that teachers in the 1950s possessed images of intelligence and ability different from those in the pre-war era or after the 1960s. The uniqueness can be summarized into two points. One is that these images were constructed through examination of the teachers themselves on the educability of students, a practice which was different from the 1960s. Another point is that schools filled a major role in measuring intelligence, a phenomenon not observed in the pre-war era. In conclusion, this paper proposes hypotheses on why teachers'images of intelligence and ability transformed in the 1960s.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/4478
ISSN: 13421050


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