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タイトル: Design and Evaluation of Communication Protocols for Quantum Repeater Networks
その他のタイトル: 量子リピーターネットワーク向け通信プロトコルの設計と評価
著者: Aparicio, Luciano
著者(別言語): アパリシオ, ルシアノ
発行日: 2011年9月27日
抄録: When built, quantum repeater networks will require classical network protocols to control the quantum operations. However, existing work on repeaters has focused on the quantum operations themselves, with less attention paid to the contents, semantics, ordering and reliability of the classical control messages. In this work we define and describe our implementation of the classical control protocols. The state machines and packet sequences for the three protocol layers are presented, and operation confirmed by running the protocols over simulations of the physical network. We also show that proper management of the resources in a bottleneck link allows the aggregate throughput of two end-to-end flows to substantially exceed that of a single flow. Our layered architectural framework will support independent evolution of the separate protocol layers. Networks of quantum repeaters utilize three concepts to execute a distributed algorithm that creates entangled quantum states between nodes that are far apart: a basic entanglement mechanism which depends on the physical implementation, error management (in this work, we study a method known as purification), and finally a quantum state propagation layer (here we implement entanglement swapping, which builds multi-hop connections from single-hop connections). Some researchers are investigating approaches that are substantially different from entanglement swapping [30, 24, 19]. Here we focus on swapping, but the layered architecture approach is broadly applicable, allowing other implementations to replace only a single layer in the protocol stack. Previous work primarily focused on the physical and mathematical tools for building repeaters. Classical information is also needed to enable teleportation and swapping, as many quantum operations are not deterministic, and results of quantum measurements need to be reported to distant partners before further operations can proceed. Also, operations in the middle of the network must be coordinated to route and swap properly. This requires classical messages to make operations robust, but message propagation times penalize performance. Even though this delay is usually included in repeater simulations, prior work has not defined the protocols in detail, especially with respect to how all of the nodes make consistent decisions in a timely fashion. In this work, we introduce a protocol stack for networks of quantum repeaters that considers all the necessary classical messages and which can be easily adapted for different approaches at all three protocol layers. We run simulations of competing flows on a dumbbell topology in order to increase our confidence in the behavior of our network protocols. By adjusting the fidelity thresholds required for entanglement swapping, we show that some configurations boost the aggregate throughput for multiple flows significantly above the maximum for a single flow, taking advantage of resources that would otherwise sit idle. The operation of such complex networks and such delicate tuning of the system without formal protocol definitions would not be possible. Previous work has also concentrated almost exclusively on the dedicated use of a single line or chain of repeaters, delivering Bell pairs only to the two nodes at the ends of the chain. Networks, however, typically have more than two end points, and allow any pair of these end nodes to communicate. More topologically complex networks, with numerous end nodes, are obviously much more scalable than connecting every possible pair of nodes using a dedicated line of repeaters. we investigate how classical multiplexing schemes translate to the domain of quantum repeaters, in order to manage shared resources and active communication flows of data from different stations. We simulate four sharing protocols in a complex network with competing traffic. Circuit switching gives any individual flow the best performance, but makes poor use of the overall network and is inflexible. We use circuit switching as our baseline case to compare time division multiplexing, buffer space multiplexing, and statistical multiplexing, and show that all multiplexing schemes are better than circuit switching. For the particular network simulated, we find that statistical multiplexing outperforms time division multiplexing by 28% and buffer space multiplexing by 13%. We find that all three multiplexing schemes are fair; each flow is penalized a similar percentage of its throughput as the the total number of users in the network increases. Finally, statistical multiplexing requires no network-wide coordination of the use of quantum memory or channels, and is easier to implement than a robust, scalable scheme for the other protocols. Our current results suggest that the best strategy for quantum repeater networks is statistical multiplexing. (This is in fact the quantum analogue of the basis on which the Internet works.) However, our current simulations are done with no degradation of memory over time, using the assumption of quantum error-corrected memory at each repeater; inclusion of decoherence and a finite qubit lifetime remains as future work.
内容記述: 報告番号: ; 学位授与年月日: 2011-09-27 ; 学位の種別: 修士 ; 学位の種類: 修士(情報理工学) ; 学位記番号: ; 研究科・専攻: 情報理工学系研究科電子情報学専攻
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/50177
出現カテゴリ:025 修士論文
1244025 修士論文(電子情報学専攻)

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