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タイトル: Does Social Capital Help Improve the Irrigation Service Fee Payment? : A case study of an irrigation association in the Philippines
その他のタイトル: 社会関係資本と水利費支払いの関係性 : フィリピンの水利組合の事例に
著者: Tanaka, Akie
著者(別言語): 田中, 映江
キーワード: Social Capital
Irrigation Association
the irrigation service fee
the Philippines
Collective Action
the Irrigation Service Fee Payment
発行日: 2012年3月22日
抄録: The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between the irrigation service fee (ISF) payment rate and social capital by examining the key factors of social capital that disincentivize ISF payments by farmers in an IA in the Philippines. This thesis utilizes theories of social capital and collective action for its analysis. This thesis finds that land tenure is the key factor that makes it difficult to raise the ISF payment rates. It is difficult to govern irrigation systems because of their characteristics as a common pool resource. A common pool resource can be exhausted by excessive use of the resource and the inability to exclude people who do not bear the costs of usage. Irrigation is available for use by any farmer as long as it reaches their rice paddies, regardless of whether or not the farmers bear the costs of maintaining the irrigation system. Preventing the free riding of irrigation systems in order to facilitate the sustainable management of resources is a critical issue. Solving this problem requires understanding the mechanisms of a non-payment system. In the 1970's and 80's, the government of the Philippines was keen on constructing irrigation systems. Due to the top-down construction of irrigation systems by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA), farmers do not really have an incentive to operate and maintain irrigation systems that support effective sustainable irrigation management. The NIA encouraged farmers to organize irrigation associations (IAs) in an attempt to give more incentives to farmers operating and maintaining irrigation systems. Then, the NIA also aims to turn over some rights of ownership and management of national irrigation systems to IAs. However, the process of turnover has been slow and many IAs have been too fragile to properly maintain irrigations systems. The ISF is the main financial source to organize an IA. The low ISF payment rate causes the fragility in IAs. Therefore, this thesis tries to examine how farmers can be motivated to pay the ISF by examining the factors that disincentivize farmers'ISF payments. This research uses theories of social capital and collective action for analysis. Social capital is the concept that utilizes human relationships and societal ties among people as a type of capital that can be invested in order to bring benefits to individuals or to a whole society. Theories of social capital can serve to explain the success of irrigation management. One prominent study verifies the role of an irrigation organizer as the catalyst to facilitate farmers in creating collective actions for sustainable irrigation management (Uphoff and Wijayaratna, 2000). This thesis adopts the concept of three types of social capital suggested by Woolcock (2001): bonding, bridging and linking. Also, theories of collective action explain the mechanisms that create incentives for farmers to join in collective action. Generally, they explain that farmers'motivations to join in collective actions are based on farmers'perceptions of rules and institutions which prevent free-riding. Theories of collective action are relevant to social capital in that social capital can facilitate the creation of rules and institutions. Therefore, this thesis tries to approach the issue of whether strong social capital can help achieve collective action among farmers (a higher ISF payment) in an IA to create sustainable irrigation management. The theoretical hypothesis for this research is composed of two assumptions and three hypothetical relationships. The first assumption is that the sustainable operation and maintenance of irrigation requires collective action including the farmers'ISF payment. The other assumption is that institutional arrangements and infrastructure are interlinked, but this thesis does not discuss the technical aspects of irrigation. The three hypothetical relationships are: 1) the farmers'motivation for the ISF payment has relationships with the institutional arrangements that prepare a system to allocate water fairly among the farmers, 2) the institutional arrangements can be promoted by strong social capital, and 3) there is a relationship between social capital and incentives for ISF payment. This thesis attests several working hypotheses led by the theoretical hypothesis which analyzes the key selected factors of social capital that affect the ISF payment in BRISIA. They are: 1) IAs with strong social capital have high ISF payment rates, 2) An IA which has stronger social capital creates a more functional IA., 3) IAs with a water rotation system have better ISF payment rates, 4) IAs with strong perceptions of corruption in the Philippine government (low linking) have low ISF payment rates, 5) The relationship between an IA and Barangay (the smallest political division in the Philippines) affects the ISF payment rate, 6) IAs with stronger Bayanihan (the traditional cooperative behavior of communities in the Philippines) have a higher rate of ISF payment, 7) What are the factors of social capital that affect the ISF payment. This thesis uses the Balanac River Irrigation System Association (BRISIA) as a case study. Though it is one of the best organized irrigation systems in the Philippines, this system encounters a low collection rate of irrigation service fee (ISF) payments. The author conducted interviews with the farmers of BRISIA and distributed and collected questionnaires. The main findings of this thesis are: 1) The IA that lacks bonding social capital seems to have a low ISF payment rate, 2) The downstream users with weak social capital creates a high functioning organization that coordinates fair water distribution, 3) The downstream IAs that experience scarce water supply and low ISF payment rates have a water rotation system, 4) The relationship between the negative perception of the government and ISF payments is not clarified to be strong, 5) There are no relationships between barangay functions and the ISF payment, 6) There are no relationships between bayanihan practice and the ISF payment, and 7) There is a strong relationship between the land tenure of farmers and ISF payment rates. The major contribution of this thesis is that it finds that land tenure determines the human relationships that compose social capital. Therefore, this thesis sheds a new light on the causal relationship between social capital and the ISF payment.
内容記述: 報告番号: ; 学位授与年月日: 2012-03-22 ; 学位の種別: 修士 ; 学位の種類: 修士(国際協力学) ; 学位記番号: 修創域第4474号 ; 研究科・専攻: 新領域創成科学研究科環境学研究系国際協力学専攻
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/52371
出現カテゴリ:025 修士論文
1223725 修士論文(環境学研究系国際協力学専攻)


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