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タイトル: 「プロヴィデンス『入植誓約文』」にみる政教分離思想とロジャー・ウィリアムズの関係
その他のタイトル: The Relationship between "Separation of Church and State" as Seen in "The Providence Compact" and Roger Williams
著者: 中山, 勉
著者(別言語): Nakayama, Tsutomu
発行日: 2012年3月31日
出版者: 東京大学文学部宗教学研究室
掲載誌情報: 東京大学宗教学年報. XXIX, 2012.3.31, pp. 127-142
抄録: Born around 1603, Roger Williams is widely believed among scholars to be the founder of the notion of "separation of church and state" and author of "The Providence Compact." In 1638 he proposed the first legal document proclaiming the principle. The Compact states that the town meeting of Providence, which consists of married male land-owners, may decide anything democratically, but its jurisdiction must be strictly limited "only in civil things," or that it cannot touch the realm of one's conscience. Some say this idea led to the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment which would be ratified in 1791. With the historical fact that the Constitution itself is the very first of its kind in the world which guarantees the liberty of conscience, people naturally are astonished by Williams'insight. This present thesis analyzes the Compact especially the phrase above and its historical background to see if this traditional understanding is correct. First, utilizing several contemporary dictionaries, meanings of the word "civil" then are investigated to find out whether pitting it against "ecclesiastical" is persuasive. In other words, can we assume that the word, "civil" implicitly excluded things religious when used in the phrase "only in civil things" without referring to anything else? Second, it is demonstrated that the grammatical structure of the sentence including the phrase does not necessarily support the interpretation made by scholars. In short, this phrase can be read as a prefix to restrict new comers'commission in the town meeting to things civil while the original founders of the plantation do freely argue and decide on things religious as well. Third, an important fact that the Compact itself was not written down by Williams is revealed. Though he made the scheme himself, the document was penned by Richard Scott, a Baptist. And finally, exploring the relationship between the Christian Baptist and the history of religious liberty, it is argued that the phrase in question "only in civil things" was added to the original Compact by Scott and has nothing to do with the thought of Roger Williams. It can be safely concluded that Williams then had no intention of establishing any liberty, freedom or discretion by "The Providence Compact." The purpose of this thesis is not to trifle the record of Williams but, on the contrary, by liberating him from a fragile notion of "human rights," to put us on the threshold of getting a new image of a religious genius. Who was Roger Williams, and what did he want to accomplish? This is the opening chapter of a new study.
内容記述: 論文/Articles
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/53388
ISSN: 02896400


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