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タイトル: ヒンドゥー教の葬儀・祖先祭祀研究(1) : 特定の死者に対する継続的供養儀礼の成立について
その他のタイトル: The Origin of Continuous Rites for the Deceased in Hinduism
著者: 虫賀, 幹華
著者(別言語): Mushiga, Tomoka
発行日: 2012年3月31日
出版者: 東京大学文学部宗教学研究室
掲載誌情報: 東京大学宗教学年報. XXIX, 2012.3.31, pp. 143-172
抄録: In modern India, many Hindus perform śrāddhas for ancestral rites. But there were different types of ancestral rites (piṇḍapitṛyajña and pitṛyajña) before the rules of śrāddha were formed in Gṛhyasūtras. I believe that it is very useful to explore the shift of ancestral rites since that time in considering how modern Hindus view their ancestors. M. R. Sayers (2008) wrote the only thesis which focuses on the period when the rules of śrāddha were formed, trying to demonstrate the differences between śrāddha and the earlier ancestral rites. But in his analysis two important things are overlooked: one is the connection between rites for the deceased and rites for ancestors, and the other is the prolongation and complication of a series of the rites for the deceased, which occured in Gṛhyasūtras with the formation of the śrāddha. Before the rules of śrāddha were formed, in Brāhmaṇas and Śrautasūtras the rules of ancestral rites as well as funeral ones were described in the context of annual rites, mostly in the last part of each text. These funeral rites were performed only one time immediately after a person's death; it is only through those transient funeral rites such as cremation that the deceased could attain the status of an ancestor. In Gṛhyasūtras, however, the rules of the ekoddiṣṭa śrāddha were established; in fact the deceased cannot become an ancestor without performance of the very rituals, which were continued for one year. Since then this continuous ekoddiṣṭa śrāddha was added to the old "funeral rites" and connected to the general ancestral rites (monthly śrāddha and śrāddha performed on some auspicious occasion). Though this series of rituals was not seen clearly in Gṛhyasūtras, I will attempt to trace its origin. In modern India, ekoddiṣṭa śrāddha is not only for the deceased before becoming an ancestor, but also for an actual ancestor. I believe that it is necessary to focus on this ekoddiṣṭa śrāddha to demonstrate the important aspect of modern Hindus'view of ancestors and that this inquiry is the first step to examine it in this wide-ranging study.
内容記述: 論文/Articles
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/53389
ISSN: 02896400


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