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タイトル: 『抱朴子』の歴史認識と王導の江東政策
その他のタイトル: Historical Perceptions in the Baopuzi and Wang Dao’s Policy towards Jiangdong
著者: 渡邉, 義浩
著者(別言語): Watanabe, Yoshihiro
発行日: 2014年12月
出版者: 東京大学東洋文化研究所
掲載誌情報: 東洋文化研究所紀要. 第166冊, 2014.12, pp. 1-27
抄録: Ge Hong 葛洪, who was born into a poor family in Jiangdong 江東, was such an ardent admirer of Lu Ji 陸機, who had not been blessed with good rulers and died a violent death during the Rebellion of the Eight Princes, that he sent one of his students to Lu Ji’s encampment to inquire of his dying words. For this reason, following in the footsteps of Lu Ji’s “Bianwang lun” 辯亡論, which described the fall of the Sun Wu 孫呉, Ge Hong discussed the fall of the Sun Wu in the “Wushi” 呉失 chapter of his Baopuzi 抱朴子. When discussing the fall of the Sun Wu, Ge Hong’s historical perceptions were premised on the notion that past and present are of equal value (junshi 鈞世). This was influenced by the “Qishi” 齊世 chapter in the Lunheng 論衡 by Wang Chong 王充, but whereas Wang Chong put forward the idea of the equality of the ages (qishi) in order to glorify the Han dynasty, Ge Hong’s idea of junshi did not lead to praise of the Western Jin 晉. Rather, there is reflected in the “Wushi” chapter a sense of crisis regarding the Western Jin, which was in a state of upheaval. What concerned Ge Hong the most was the modus operandi of rulers who did not make use of wise men, something that he also emphasized as the cause of the fall of the Sun Wu. Lu Ji’s “Bianwang lun” similarly criticized the failure to employ men of wisdom, but he did so in order to satirize the foolishness of the emperor Huidi 惠帝 of the Western Jin. In contrast, Ge Hong’s view in this regard reflected his perception of the times, which was premised on his proposals to the administration of Wang Dao 王導 and Sima Rui 司馬睿, who had heralded a policy towards Jiangdong that promised to respect local customs and recruit talented men. In the Baopuzi, Ge Hong discussed critically in regard to respect for local customs how the customs of Jiangdong had deteriorated as a result of rule by the Western Jin, and with regard to the recruitment of talented men he criticized on the basis of his historical perception of the final years of the Later Han the manner in which appointments were made in the late Western Jin. Like the late Western Jin, the final years of the Later Han were a time when the system for making of ficial appointments had collapsed because of distor tions in the assessment of nominees, and in the Baopuzi Ge Hong presented the administration of Wang Dao and Sima Rui with concrete proposals for reforming the system for making official appointments. His proposal, based on a historical perception that viewed past and present as being of equal value, was one that did not discriminate between the Chinese heartland, inhabited by descendants of the victors, and Jiangdong, inhabited by descendants of a defeated state, and it included penal provisions for recommenders and aimed to employ men of the categories of “filial and incorrupt” (xiaolian 孝廉) and “cultivated talent” (xiucai 秀才) on the basis of examinations in Confucian learning. This was not a proposal that directly reformed the nine-rank rectifier system (jiupin zhongzheng 九品中正) that provided the institutional guarantee for turning out high-ranking officials in the Western Jin, and here one can discern the limitations and earnestness of Ge Hong, who came from a poor but influential local clan in Jiangdong.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/56370
ISSN: 05638089


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