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タイトル: ミャンマー・パテインの精米所経営と市場
その他のタイトル: Managements and Markets of the Rice Mills in Pathein, Myanmar
著者: 髙橋, 昭雄
著者(別言語): Takahashi, Akio
発行日: 2015年3月
出版者: 東京大学東洋文化研究所
掲載誌情報: 東洋文化研究所紀要. 第167冊, 2015.3, pp. 467(38)-504(1)
抄録: Rice business in Myanmar has been gradually privatized since the socialist economic systems were abolished in 1988 by the military coup. The junta decreased the rice rationing system, under which rice had been distributed to all citizens, to the public servants, diminished the paddy procurement system, and partially privatized the processing and domestic marketing in 1990s. New construction of private rice mills restarted after the blank period of the Burmese socialism. Furthermore, the junta scraped both the rice rationing and paddy procurement systems, and freed up rice export to a certain extent in 2000s. Rice business has been more revitalized and establishments of rice mills have been accelerated since then. Nonetheless, Myanmar’s rice export was stagnant in 2000s because of capricious interventions by the government. It was not until 2010s that the export increased drastically under the democratization and liberalization. However, quality and quantity of exportable rice is still insufficient. It is necessary for rice millers to produce quality rice more speedy in larger quantities for the boost of rice export. In view of this situation, I made an interview research at all in-service rice mills in Pathein, one of the rice trading center since the colonial period, in Ayeyarwaddy Region, the rice bowl of Myanmar. This kind of field study has not been contacted since before the Burmese socialism. The following is the results and findings of the survey. Rice mills were built on the riverside because paddy was brought in and rice was taken out by boat. As road connections in the Delta were improved by the junta, some rice mills began to take out rice on the road in 1990s and some were set up in the inland area, where only land transportation is available, in 2000s. While ownerships of the rice mills were inherited by Chinese family line from the Independence to the end of the Socialism, Burmese merchants have come into rice business and constructed rice mills especially since 2000s in response to the liberalization. Motivity also altered. Steam was the main source of power from the Colonial to the Socialist period. Half of the rice mills changed their steamers to electricity and newly established mills equipped electric engines in 1990s. However, blackout has been daily routine in Myanmar and electricity rate has risen. Gasifier took off correspondingly in 2000s. Rice mills accept paddy from farmers, merchants and brokers in two ways: one is custom milling (Nawali) and the other is commercial milling. The former is milling paddy for a fee, and the latter is buying paddy and selling milled rice. Only custom-type mills milling the procured paddy by the state was legally permitted and purchase of paddy by the private was strictly prohibited during the Socialist era. Commercial-type mills came into existence after the end of the era and a large majority of the sur veyed mills buys paddy and sells rice now. However, custom-type rice mills survive by changing their costumers from the state to merchants. While custom-type rice mills intend to enlarge their milling capacities and to mill a large amount of paddy, commercial-type mills are to increase their godown capacities and working capitals mainly including advance on paddy farmers and brokers to buy as much paddy as possible, stock of paddy to mill as much paddy as possible at a high figure, and accounts receivable to sell as much milled rice as possible to rice brokers and merchants. Finally, I estimated, by log-linear regression analysis, what factors determine the production volume of milled rice. Explanatory variables are age of owner, education record, Chinese (dummy), inheritance (dummy), transportation by water (dummy), milling capacity, gasifier (dummy), drier (dummy), godown capacity, number of milling engineers, ratio of paddy purchase (%), commission agent (dummy), working capital, ownership of paddy field (dummy), export (dummy), and explained variable is the volume of milled rice. While milling capacity, ratio of paddy purchase, godown capacity, and working capital are significant, the coefficients of the preceding two are negative. The negative coefficient of milling capacity means that the working ratios of higher capacity mills are low. The negative coefficient of ratio of paddy purchase (%) signifies that custom mills mill paddy in larger amount than commercial mills. The positive coefficients of godown capacity and ratio of working capital imply that large amount of paddy purchase and inventory makes a profit. The rice millers in Pathein are competing for the amount of purchase, milling, and stock. It will take time to improve quality of milled rice and to enlarge the milling capacity to compete in foreign markets.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/56592
ISSN: 05638089


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