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タイトル: アメリカの市政改革と教育委員会制度改革 (4) : 教育行政の集権化とビジネス型教育長
その他のタイトル: The Reform of Municipality and School Board in America (4)--Centralization of School Administration and 'Business' Superintendents
著者: 藤本, 典裕
著者(別言語): Fujimoto, Norihiro
発行日: 1990年3月30日
出版者: 東京大学教育学部
掲載誌情報: 東京大学教育学部紀要. 29巻, 1990.3, p.319-329
抄録: Today's American school boards were created at the turn of the century after the 'Municipal Reform' principles. After that, they have developped parallel to municipalities. Early superintendents were 'educational' experts, gave teachers and principals educational leadership and advice, and sometimes taught themselves. With population growth, educational affairs grew excessive, complex and technical. Superintendents were thus pressed to be technical administrators who dealt with business, administrative and executive affairs in addition to educational ones. This change in the nature of superintendents was followed by the centralization of school administration, which at the same time accelerated this change. This 'professionalization' of local school administration was based on the 'Municipal Reform' principles, especially the 'separation of politics from administration' and the separation of the decision-making concerned to education from its execution. 'Professionalization' also alienated various 'lay' interests, especially the interests of minorities and the poor, for it went against the 'common interest' of the community. Superintendents (and city managers) functioned as 'neutral professionals', separated from politics and conflicts among various interest groups. In this paper I have tried to clarify this 'professionalizing' process of school administration, the change in quality of superintendents, and the coming of 'business' superintendents. I did it by (1) examining the contentions of some theorists who introduced 'scientific management' as the leading principle of school administration, (2) examining the reform movements which addressed school administration structure, taking the States of Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland as case studies.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/588
ISSN: 04957849


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