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タイトル: Merleau-Ponty : Eye, Body and Postmodernism
著者: Aleš, Erjavec
発行日: 1996年3月25日
出版者: Faculty of Letters, the University of Tokyo
掲載誌情報: JTLA : Journal of the Faculty of Letters, the University of Tokyo, Aesthetics. 20, 1996.3.25, pp. 75-86
抄録: Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) has been one of the major figures in the philosophy and aesthetics of a few decades ago. Furthermore, he influenced numerous recent authors, these ranging from Jacques Derrida and Jean-François Lyotard to Jacques Lacan. Moreover, via Lyotard's early work Discours, figure (1971), which became influential in the US and the UK only in the second half of the eighties, his ideas took hold in writers who hadn't even mentioned him. Still, as a recent commentator wrote, Merleau-Ponty "represents a part of contemporary heritage, he is often quoted, but, nonetheless, he remains absent. Nobody ignores him, but only few have read him. In this article I intend to take as my point of departure Merleau-Ponty's essay "Eye and Mind" from 1961. I shall also, at least partly, take into consideration his ideas or rather statements from some of his other more or less concurrent writings, with the help of which I hope to illuminate some of the issues presented in this, Merleau-Ponty's probably most widely read essay. In Part II shall concentrate upon the ideas in "Eye and Mind" which can be relevant for a discussion of the difference between the static and the moving eye and the inclusion of the latter into a post-humanist conception of the subject. I shall then develop some of the consequences of Merleau-Ponty's insistence upon a different understanding of vision, which would somewhat coincide with what Martin Jay has called "a new ontology of sight". In Part II I shall sketch some of the uses Merleau-Ponty's views on these matters have been put to by other writers, especially those who were concerned with the visual arts. In Part III I shall finally point to some of the ways in which Merleau-Ponty's treatment of vision may facilitate our contemporary conceptualization of the differences between the fine arts with their spatial and corporeal features and the new mechanical media like photography, film, television and video. In this last part I shall also draw upon Fredric Jameson and some other authors so as to: (a) support Jameson's thesis that postmodern art is effectively an art form where the links between the referent, the signifier and the signified have been severed; (b) that the mechanical reproducibility of artworks not only helped in lowering the barrier between high art and mass culture, but also helped to establish certain works as fetishes (human bodies included) or raised their value as originals, and (c) to claim that art as we have hitherto known, is increasingly being dissolved in the broader category of culture, hence losing its modernist normative and existential prerogatives; (d) my final claim shall be that much of this has to do with the fact that visual arts and culture are no longer supported by discursive master narratives, but are effectively self-supporting, a consequence of which is a predominance of the effects of the moving gaze: pictures and images as the dominant forms of contemporary representation thwart totalization, thus effectively bringing about what some call "dedifferentiation" or "reenchantment of art". This last observation can also be found, although differently phrased, in Merleau-Ponty, whose work can thus perhaps lead us to insights concerning our own contemporary culture.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2261/7132
ISSN: 03862593
出現カテゴリ:JTLA : Journal of the Faculty of Letters, the University of Tokyo, Aesthetics
JTLA : Journal of the Faculty of Letters, the University of Tokyo, Aesthetics


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